Practice for Child- and
Youth Psychology

B A L I - I N D O N E S I A

Wim J. Voorwalt


There are various types of treatments, which are all aimed at reducing or removing emotional problems, using a common method: talking. There are however, distinct differences in the way the talking occurs. Some therapies focus on the background and the origin of the problems. Others try to determine what the client actually wants, when focusing on their feellings.

Cognitive behavioural therapy typically uses exercises to teach the patient how to view problematic situations differently, and how to find other ways to deal with them.Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a fusion of two phsychological methods: cognitive therapy and behavioural therapy.

Cognitive Therapy

This method emphasises how much influence thoughts have on emotions. A negative view of important events and occurances in one’s life tends to make one anguished, down or irritable. The cognitive therapy method will explore whether the negative view is justified in the circumstance. This is done out collaboratively by the therapist and client. Where appropriate, ways are sought to reduce the negative thinking process. Again, that search for more positive views and thoughts is a joint effort by the client and therapist. Specific exercises, and homework agreements are applied.

Behavioural Therapy

Behavioural therapy incorporates the circumstances or situations that trigger the client’s problematic behaviour. Subsequently, the therapist helps the client to understand and identify these circumstances, and to practice more appropriate behaviours when they occur, by way of homework and exercises. Together the therapist and client work to identify these specific situations, and formulate ways to practice better, more appropriate behaviour.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

More and more often cognitive and behavioural therapies are leading to similar results. Furthermore, these two methods are well matched. By applying the one therapy method, a client can both learn to view the difficulties differently, as well as how to deal with them differently. This is why cognitive behavioural therapists sometimes apply the cognitive method, sometimes mainly a behavioural method and other times a combination of the methods: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy or CBT.

Does Cognitive Behavioural Therapy works?

Yes. Extensive research has been carried out on the results of cognitive and cognitive behavioural therapies. More ofthen than not, these proved to be most effective. Frequently just effective, and occasionally even more effective than medication.

How long does Cognitive behavioural therapy take?

The client is being stimulated in the cognitive behaviour through the use of homework and also by being actively engaged in the application of his therapy. Additionally, the cognitive behavioural therapy dovetails as solidly as possible on to the client’s difficulties. These reasons in particular make most treatments of relatively short duration.

For more information see: CBT Beck Institute


Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) was created by DR Francine Shapiro, a Psychologist and Senior Research Fellow at the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto, USA.
It is an innovative clinical treatment, which has successfully helped over one million people who have experienced psychological difficulties which originate from some kind of traumatic experience, such as sexual abuse, childhood neglect, road traffic accidents and violence. EMDR is also successful in treating other complaints such as performance anxiety, self-esteem issues, phobias, and other trauma related anxiety disorders.

EMDR therapy is a scientifically supported treatment for PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorders) recommended by numerous organizations internationally (e.g., World Health Organization, 2013). It is characterized by standardized procedures and protocols that include a bilateral sensorial stimulation such as repeated eye movements, aimed at processing and working through memories of trauma and other adverse life experiences.

Normally, the individual processes traumatic experiences naturally. However, when a person is severely traumatized, either by an overwhelming event or by being repeatedly subjected to distress, this healing process may become overloaded, leaving the original disturbing experiences unprocessed. These unprocessed memories can be stored in the brain in a "raw" form where they can be continually re-evoked when experiencing events that are similar to the original experience.

EMDR utilizes the natural healing ability of the brain and allows it to heal psychological problems at the same rate as the rest of the body heals physical wounds. Because EMDR allows the mind and body to heal at the same rate, treatment can be rapid. The number of sessions required for EMDR treatment, however, will vary according to the complexity of the issues being dealt with. In general, the more isolated the traumatic memory being treated, the shorter the treatment tends to be.

There have been over 24 controlled studies supporting the efficacy of EMDR, making it the most thoroughly researched method in the treatment of trauma. The most recent studies with people suffering from a range of events such as rape, combat, bereavement, accidents, natural disasters etc. have found that 84 - 90% of the participants no longer had Post-traumatic Stress Disorder following EMDR treatment. A study conducted at Kaiser Permanente have reported that 100% of single-trauma victims and 77% of multiple-trauma victims no longer had PTSD after a mean of six 50-minute EMDR therapy sessions. Given its wide application, EMDR promises to be the therapy of the future.

(Source: EMDR Europe)

Practice for Child- and Youth Psychology



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